Categories of Control:
a. Formal & Informal Control (Anthony et al, 1989)
b. Output and Behaviour Control (Ouchi, 1977)
c. Market, Bereaucracy and Clan Controls (Ouchi, 1979)
d. Administrative and Social Controls (Hoopwood, 1976)
e. Results, Action and Personnel Controls (Merchants, 1985)
Formal controls include rules, standard operating procedures and budgeting systems. Informal controls are not consciously designed. They include the unwritten policies of the organization and often derive from, or are an artefact of the organizational culture.